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Welcome to Yakutsk

Construction of the pipelines will start in the first half of and it will be in use by In the past, they had to live in different places to let their livestock survive.

They had to move twice a year: end of May — summer season, and October — winter time. It had a chimney in the center of the building. These houses were built with sloping walls to isolate living spaces from cold and because of the permafrost, houses were built on wooden deck.

Yakut family outside urasa sumerhouse, around via kunstkamera. Building traditional housing has drastically decreased since , when Soviet collective farming was disbanded.

However, farming families and fishermen still own them and use them. It is a Turkic language, which has been heavily influenced by old Mongolic, Evenki, Tungusic, Yeniseian languages.

Because of the influence from many other languages, it is not understood by other Turkic speaking people. The only language that is close is Dolgan language used by Dolgan people in Taymir Peninsula, Russia , which some people claim to be a dialect of Sakha-Tyla.

The current alphabet modified Cyrillic was developed in the end of s. Even though high percentage of Yakuts use their own language, Russian is widely used as well.

It is important to mention that it is one of few Siberian indigenous languages that is not declining. Traditional Yakut diet consists of meat, fish and milk.

Fresh milk is not widely used, but skimmed and fermented products are popular. Usually eaten on feast days. Alaalji is Yakut small thick pancakes.

Leppieske is bread similar to Middle East bread baked on fire in Yakut stove. It is eaten cooked, fried on pan or grilled on fire. White Salmon Nelma and other kinds of fish is eaten frozen.

It is stored in the traditional permafrost-cellars or freezers. It is considered to be a feast food, which is usually served accompanied by vodka.

Stroganina is a bit pricy product, but people in Yakutsk that have relatives in the northern villages, have access to Straganina for a cheaper price.

Horsemeat is a particular delicacy, which is eaten frozen, boiled or fried. Meat of wild horses that live in the nature is considered tastier than the workhorse that is kept inside during the wintertime.

Squirrels are common source of food for hunters. They hunt them and sell their hides. Due to the harsh climate not many types of fruits or vegetables can grow there, but there are some types of berries, leaf plants and root vegetables that grow in the nature.

It allowed people to grow all types of warm-season vegetables like cucumbers and tomatoes. In the past and still today herbs and berries are collected and kept in pantries for the wintertime.

Due to permafrost there is no ground water in Yakutia so during the wintertime Yakuts save ice chunks in permafrost cellars and use it for the fresh water during the summer time.

Yakuts are proud of their kumys drink. It is nutritious and refreshing. Kumys is considered to be sacred beverage and is mainly drunk on summer feasts.

It is drunk from a traditional vessel choron. In the past, nobody brewed alcohol. The reason for that was freezing cold that Yakuts had to survive over the wintertime.

People had to work hard over the summer time to prepare for the winter. Preparing timber to heat up the houses and schools and growing food was one of the main things to do.

It was an obligation of every family. Original religious beliefs were animalism and Shamanism; latter one is now recognized as an official religion of Sakha Republic.

It is a mixture of Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic beliefs in supernatural. According to it spirits live in houses, mountains, trees and forests.

Also, in the water and animals. The strongest spirit lives in bears, owls and ravens. In old times bear feet were placed outside the bed of the little children for protection.

In the old days both male and female could be a shaman, but women were considered to be more powerful. Because of historical factors and its influence from Russian diaspora, most Yakuts have lost their beliefs in Shamanism or have converted to Russian Orthodox religion.

However, Shamanism has not totally vanished. People still believe that shamans have some supernatural powers.

It is most closely related to the Dolgan language , and also to a lesser extent related to Tuvan and Shor.

Indigirka is a traditional fish salad. This cuisine is only used in Yakutia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Not to be confused with Yokuts , Yakult , or Yakutsk. It is not to be confused with Sakas. Turkic ethnic group.

See also: Yakutian knife. Main article: Sakha cuisine. Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 15 February Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Vol II: Texts.

Walter de Gruyter. University of California Press. Retrieved 4 October Molekuliarnaia Biologiia in Russian. In the 19th century it was used, like many Siberian towns, as an open prison for political dissidents.

Along with its mysterious allure and vast natural resources, the prison connotations have always lent Siberia a reputation as a grim and miserable place, not just among foreigners but also among Russians.

Anton Chekhov, on his journey through Siberia in , painted a grim picture of the life of the prisoners held there. They are no longer human beings but wild beasts.

But for many of Siberia's political exiles — includingLenin and Stalin — their time there was little more than an extended reading holiday, albeit a chilly one.

A thoughtful, bearded ethnic Russian, Fyodorov runs the newspaper from offices in central Yakutsk that, like every building in the city, are very well heated.

The paper was first set up just before the February Revolution of by political dissidents. It has changed name nine times in the subsequent 90 years, in reflection of the differing political winds.

The region is rich in gold and diamonds, which is what lay behind the Soviets' decision to turn Yakutsk into a major regional centre, first using the Gulag labour system, and later with the resettlement of thousands of volunteers seeking adventure, higher salaries and the chance to build socialism on ice.

The corporate giant Alrosa, which owns Russia's diamond monopoly, is based in the region and accounts for 20 per cent of the world's supply of rough diamonds.

In time, Yakutsk was transformed into a real city with hotels, cinemas, an opera house, universities, a pizza delivery service, and even a zoo.

As I'm about to learn, the inhuman temperatures and the winter fog cover are just part of daily life for its hardy residents.

Both Moscow and Yakutsk are currently in the midst of cold, snowy winters. For Britons, who are wont to label any temperature the wrong side of zero "Siberian", the difference between cold and even colder might seem intangible.

But the 40C difference in temperature between the two snow-clad cities is as great as that between the coldest winter day in Britain and a sunny July scorcher in the south of Spain.

Despite the fact that the locals are stoically going about their business, and children are playing in the snow on the central square and laughing merrily, I realise that I'll need a warm taxi to continue my exploration.

The 13 minutes I have spent outside left me out of breath, swearing and aching all over, my face so red it looks like I've just returned from a week on the Costa del Sol.

I collapse on the bed in the hotel room to thaw myself, and it takes half an hour for my body to feel normal again. The most unpleasant part comes after 15 minutes, when my legs, returning to normal body temperature, have an unpleasantly warm cramp radiating from within and a dull, itchy feeling all over.

Locals are a little more adept at dealing with their meteorological short straw. These days there aren't any bare arms around, but the locals know how to cope.

The marketplace is still full of hardy souls hawking frozen fish, pork and horse hearts. I ask if standing outside in such temperatures every day caused her any health problems.

She looks confused: "Why would it cause any health problems? I'm fine. Remarkably, a study carried out by British and Russian doctors in the late s found that, while in Britain the number of people reporting illnesses goes up during the winter months, in Yakutsk it doesn't.

The study concluded that this was because people didn't go outdoors in winter unless it was absolutely necessary, and if they did, they dressed properly.

But there's still a level of endurance that is hard to comprehend. Workers continue working on building sites up to minus 50C below this the metal becomes too brittle to work with , and children go to school unless it's below minus 55C although the kindergarten gets the day off if it hits minus 50C.

Almost without exception, the women wear fur from head to toe, much of it locally produced. In such a climate, ethics count for little.

You need to wear fur here to survive. Nothing else keeps you warm. A decent fur coat can cost anything from several hundred to several thousand pounds, but it's seen as a good investment, and something to be used year after year.

Also popular are local versions of valenki, the fur boots that are common across Russia. Here they are made with reindeer hide, and the women's version features colourful sequined patterning.

In these conditions, traditional Yakut food always made use of whatever it could. Things are a little tastier nowadays, although horse still features prominently on restaurant menus.

Being a Yakutian horse doesn't seem like much fun — you are reared in miserably cold temperatures until you're old enough to be slaughtered and turned into "thin slices of baby horse steak" or "slices of raw horse liver with spices".

Other delicacies include marinated reindeer meat and semi-frozen slices of raw river fish — a sort of Yakutian sushi.

The latter is exquisitely tasty and makes for a good zakuska — a snack to nibble on after downing a shot of vodka. And after a few shots of vodka, the slices of baby horse don't taste too bad either.

I ask Vasily Illarionov, the head of the Yakut Language and Culture Department at the local university, what role the weather played in folklore.

Anyway, it's nice cold we have here because we don't have wind. When it gets down to minus 40C I like to walk to work.

I like our weather, but I don't think I could live somewhere windy. But the summers sound even worse than the winters — short and sticky, with two or three weeks when the temperature hits 30C or 35C.

None of the buildings is equipped with air conditioning, and the air is filled with midges and mosquitoes in swarms of biblical proportions.

One possibly apocryphal tale tells of reindeer dying because they were unable to breathe, so thick were the clouds of insects.

The short summer is also a time when gargantuan efforts are made to ensure that the region is ready for the onset of winter.

The Lena river, more than 10 miles wide at Yakutsk, is not bridged anywhere for hundreds of miles, so villages on the other side have to be stocked up for the months when the river isn't navigable but the ice hasn't thickened enough for a road to be built across it.

Heating pipes are examined and repaired — if they fail, as they did in Artyk and Markha just before New Year, those stuck without warmth risk death.

The whole region suffers harsh winters. It was here that the lowest ever temperature in an inhabited place was recorded — minus The conditions are also a nightmare for building.

Yakutsk is the largest city in the world built on permafrost — soil that remains permanently frozen year round. Permafrost covers 15 per cent of the earth's land mass, and 65 per cent of Russia's, says Mark Shats, a researcher at Yakutsk's Permafrost Institute.

At a depth of four metres below the ground, the temperature is minus 8C all year round, whether the ground temperature is minus 35C or plus 35C.

In the bunker, where ice crystals have formed on the ceiling in perfect geometric squares, it quickly becomes apparent why it's so difficult to build on permafrost.

The soil, which is a combination of sand and ice, is as hard as concrete. But at the edges, where the ice has had a chance to melt, all that's left is powdery sand.

If a building is erected in these conditions, the warmth that emanates from the building melts the ice and destroys the stability of the foundations.

For this reason, every single building in Yakutsk is built on underground stilts, varying in depth depending on the size of the building.

For a small cottage, Shats says, the stilts should be six to eight metres deep, while for buildings such as power stations, they can reach down as far as 25 metres into the earth.

Some Western academics have said that the very existence of places like Yakutsk, built in terrain that simply isn't meant for human habitation, is absurd.

In , Gaddy co-authored a book called The Siberian Curse arguing that Russia's huge territory was in fact a weakness and not something to be proud of.

With all the oil wealth that Russia has, they can theoretically make any place liveable," he adds. If the Soviet Union had worked according to the market rather than grand ideologies, they say cities such as Yakutsk would never have appeared.

Gaddy accuses today's Russia, which has launched a series of programmes to maintain and rejuvenate Siberian cities, of suffering from a "crazy 19th-century ideology that you don't really possess land unless you have people there".

But most Yakutsk residents don't plan on going anywhere soon — and don't much want to, either. For the ethnic Yakuts, it has been their home for centuries, and those who came seeking cash and adventure in Soviet times have put down roots.

It's our homeland. What can you do about it? I get a last blast of Yakutsk air at the airport, where we have to walk to the plane and are then forced to wait for 10 minutes on the tarmac before we are allowed to board.

As we taxi down the icy runway in preparation for take-off, the pilot announces that the current temperature in Moscow is minus 4C.

The gender and age gap in life Video porno de niurka is a serious threat to the safety sustainability Girls do porn free trial the rural communities of Yakutia. Alamay tyyn: Byulyuu uluustarygar climat ularyytyn tuhunan uonna baar khyhalgalar [ Precious life: About climatic changes and current challengers in Vilyiu counties]. Women are Sex angola willing than men to change either location or occupation or both. Anthropology of East Europe Review, 28 2Hogtie challenge The social Jovencitas colombianas porno of rural residents differentiates by gender. Crate, S.

In these conditions, traditional Yakut food always made use of whatever it could. Things are a little tastier nowadays, although horse still features prominently on restaurant menus.

Being a Yakutian horse doesn't seem like much fun — you are reared in miserably cold temperatures until you're old enough to be slaughtered and turned into "thin slices of baby horse steak" or "slices of raw horse liver with spices".

Other delicacies include marinated reindeer meat and semi-frozen slices of raw river fish — a sort of Yakutian sushi. The latter is exquisitely tasty and makes for a good zakuska — a snack to nibble on after downing a shot of vodka.

And after a few shots of vodka, the slices of baby horse don't taste too bad either. I ask Vasily Illarionov, the head of the Yakut Language and Culture Department at the local university, what role the weather played in folklore.

Anyway, it's nice cold we have here because we don't have wind. When it gets down to minus 40C I like to walk to work. I like our weather, but I don't think I could live somewhere windy.

But the summers sound even worse than the winters — short and sticky, with two or three weeks when the temperature hits 30C or 35C. None of the buildings is equipped with air conditioning, and the air is filled with midges and mosquitoes in swarms of biblical proportions.

One possibly apocryphal tale tells of reindeer dying because they were unable to breathe, so thick were the clouds of insects.

The short summer is also a time when gargantuan efforts are made to ensure that the region is ready for the onset of winter.

The Lena river, more than 10 miles wide at Yakutsk, is not bridged anywhere for hundreds of miles, so villages on the other side have to be stocked up for the months when the river isn't navigable but the ice hasn't thickened enough for a road to be built across it.

Heating pipes are examined and repaired — if they fail, as they did in Artyk and Markha just before New Year, those stuck without warmth risk death.

The whole region suffers harsh winters. It was here that the lowest ever temperature in an inhabited place was recorded — minus The conditions are also a nightmare for building.

Yakutsk is the largest city in the world built on permafrost — soil that remains permanently frozen year round.

Permafrost covers 15 per cent of the earth's land mass, and 65 per cent of Russia's, says Mark Shats, a researcher at Yakutsk's Permafrost Institute.

At a depth of four metres below the ground, the temperature is minus 8C all year round, whether the ground temperature is minus 35C or plus 35C.

In the bunker, where ice crystals have formed on the ceiling in perfect geometric squares, it quickly becomes apparent why it's so difficult to build on permafrost.

The soil, which is a combination of sand and ice, is as hard as concrete. But at the edges, where the ice has had a chance to melt, all that's left is powdery sand.

If a building is erected in these conditions, the warmth that emanates from the building melts the ice and destroys the stability of the foundations.

For this reason, every single building in Yakutsk is built on underground stilts, varying in depth depending on the size of the building.

For a small cottage, Shats says, the stilts should be six to eight metres deep, while for buildings such as power stations, they can reach down as far as 25 metres into the earth.

Some Western academics have said that the very existence of places like Yakutsk, built in terrain that simply isn't meant for human habitation, is absurd.

In , Gaddy co-authored a book called The Siberian Curse arguing that Russia's huge territory was in fact a weakness and not something to be proud of.

With all the oil wealth that Russia has, they can theoretically make any place liveable," he adds. If the Soviet Union had worked according to the market rather than grand ideologies, they say cities such as Yakutsk would never have appeared.

Gaddy accuses today's Russia, which has launched a series of programmes to maintain and rejuvenate Siberian cities, of suffering from a "crazy 19th-century ideology that you don't really possess land unless you have people there".

But most Yakutsk residents don't plan on going anywhere soon — and don't much want to, either. For the ethnic Yakuts, it has been their home for centuries, and those who came seeking cash and adventure in Soviet times have put down roots.

It's our homeland. What can you do about it? I get a last blast of Yakutsk air at the airport, where we have to walk to the plane and are then forced to wait for 10 minutes on the tarmac before we are allowed to board.

As we taxi down the icy runway in preparation for take-off, the pilot announces that the current temperature in Moscow is minus 4C.

The burly Siberian sitting next to me whoops with delight and takes another swig from the bottle of whisky he'ss brought on board. Click here to find the perfect hotel in Yakutsk.

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Comments Share your thoughts and debate the big issues. Join the discussion. It is not to be confused with Sakas. Turkic ethnic group.

See also: Yakutian knife. Main article: Sakha cuisine. Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 15 February Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Vol II: Texts.

Walter de Gruyter. University of California Press. Retrieved 4 October Molekuliarnaia Biologiia in Russian. Ethnic groups in Russia.

Ingrians Izhorians. Chud Muroma Merya Meschera Permians. Eastern Christianity. Eastern Protestant Christianity.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. A Yakut family. Yakut , Russian.

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