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Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Sam and Tusker are traveling across England in their old RV to visit friends, family and places from their past.

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Genres: Drama. Supernovae are more energetic than novae. In Latin , nova means "new", referring astronomically to what appears to be a temporary new bright star.

Adding the prefix "super-" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which are far less luminous.

The word supernova was coined by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in The most recent directly observed supernova in the Milky Way was Kepler's Supernova in , but the remnants of more recent supernovae have been found.

Observations of supernovae in other galaxies suggest they occur in the Milky Way on average about three times every century.

These supernovae would almost certainly be observable with modern astronomical telescopes. The most recent naked-eye supernova was SN A , the explosion of a blue supergiant star in the Large Magellanic Cloud , a satellite of the Milky Way.

Theoretical studies indicate that most supernovae are triggered by one of two basic mechanisms: the sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star such as a white dwarf, or the sudden gravitational collapse of a massive star's core.

In the first class of events, the object's temperature is raised enough to trigger runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting the star. Possible causes are an accumulation of material from a binary companion through accretion , or a stellar merger.

In the massive star case, the core of a massive star may undergo sudden collapse, releasing gravitational potential energy as a supernova.

While some observed supernovae are more complex than these two simplified theories, the astrophysical mechanics have been established and accepted by most astronomers for some time.

Supernovae can expel several solar masses of material at speeds up to several percent of the speed of light. This drives an expanding shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium , sweeping up an expanding shell of gas and dust observed as a supernova remnant.

Supernovae are a major source of elements in the interstellar medium from oxygen to rubidium. The expanding shock waves of supernovae can trigger the formation of new stars.

Supernova remnants might be a major source of cosmic rays. Supernovae might produce gravitational waves , though thus far, gravitational waves have been detected only from the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.

Compared to a star's entire history, the visual appearance of a supernova is very brief, perhaps spanning several months, so that the chances of observing one with the naked eye is roughly once in a lifetime.

Supernovae SN and SN , the latest to be observed with the naked eye in the Milky Way galaxy, had notable effects on the development of astronomy in Europe because they were used to argue against the Aristotelian idea that the universe beyond the Moon and planets was static and unchanging.

There is some evidence that the youngest galactic supernova, G1. In the case of G1. The situation for Cassiopeia A is less clear. Infrared light echos have been detected showing that it was a type IIb supernova and was not in a region of especially high extinction.

Observation and discovery of extragalactic supernovae are now far more common. Today, amateur and professional astronomers are finding several hundred every year, some when near maximum brightness, others on old astronomical photographs or plates.

American astronomers Rudolph Minkowski and Fritz Zwicky developed the modern supernova classification scheme beginning in This supports the view that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.

The date of the Cassiopeia A supernova event was determined from light echoes off nebulae , [14] while the age of supernova remnant RX J Among the earliest detected since time of detonation, and for which the earliest spectra have been obtained beginning at 6 hours after the actual explosion , is the Type II SN fs iPTF13dqy which was recorded 3 hours after the supernova event on 6 October by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory iPTF.

On 20 September , amateur astronomer Victor Buso from Rosario , Argentina was testing his telescope. The supernova Buso observed was a Type IIb made by a star twenty times the mass of the sun.

He stated: "Observations of stars in the first moments they begin exploding provide information that cannot be directly obtained in any other way.

Early work on what was originally believed to be simply a new category of novae was performed during the s. These were variously called "upper-class Novae", "Hauptnovae", or "giant novae".

It was used, as "super-Novae", in a journal paper published by Knut Lundmark in , [25] and in a paper by Baade and Zwicky. Supernovae in other galaxies cannot be predicted with any meaningful accuracy.

Normally, when they are discovered, they are already in progress. It is therefore important to discover them well before they reach their maximum.

Amateur astronomers , who greatly outnumber professional astronomers, have played an important role in finding supernovae, typically by looking at some of the closer galaxies through an optical telescope and comparing them to earlier photographs.

Toward the end of the 20th century astronomers increasingly turned to computer-controlled telescopes and CCDs for hunting supernovae. While such systems are popular with amateurs, there are also professional installations such as the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope.

Supernova searches fall into two classes: those focused on relatively nearby events and those looking farther away. Because of the expansion of the universe , the distance to a remote object with a known emission spectrum can be estimated by measuring its Doppler shift or redshift ; on average, more-distant objects recede with greater velocity than those nearby, and so have a higher redshift.

High redshift searches for supernovae usually involve the observation of supernova light curves. These are useful for standard or calibrated candles to generate Hubble diagrams and make cosmological predictions.

Supernova spectroscopy, used to study the physics and environments of supernovae, is more practical at low than at high redshift.

Supernova discoveries are reported to the International Astronomical Union 's Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams , which sends out a circular with the name it assigns to that supernova.

The name is formed from the prefix SN , followed by the year of discovery, suffixed with a one or two-letter designation. The first 26 supernovae of the year are designated with a capital letter from A to Z.

Afterward pairs of lower-case letters are used: aa , ab , and so on. Hence, for example, SN C designates the third supernova reported in the year Since , professional and amateur astronomers have been finding several hundreds of supernovae each year in , in , in ; in Since the additional letter notation has been used, even if there was only one supernova discovered that year e.

SN , for SuperNova, is a standard prefix. Until , two-letter designations were rarely needed; since , however, they have been needed every year.

Since , the increasing number of discoveries has regularly led to the additional use of three-digit designations. Astronomers classify supernovae according to their light curves and the absorption lines of different chemical elements that appear in their spectra.

If a supernova's spectrum contains lines of hydrogen known as the Balmer series in the visual portion of the spectrum it is classified Type II ; otherwise it is Type I.

In each of these two types there are subdivisions according to the presence of lines from other elements or the shape of the light curve a graph of the supernova's apparent magnitude as a function of time.

Type I supernovae are subdivided on the basis of their spectra, with Type Ia showing a strong ionised silicon absorption line.

Type I supernovae without this strong line are classified as Type Ib and Ic, with Type Ib showing strong neutral helium lines and Type Ic lacking them.

The light curves are all similar, although Type Ia are generally brighter at peak luminosity, but the light curve is not important for classification of Type I supernovae.

A small number of Type Ia supernovae exhibit unusual features, such as non-standard luminosity or broadened light curves, and these are typically classified by referring to the earliest example showing similar features.

A small proportion of type Ic supernovae show highly broadened and blended emission lines which are taken to indicate very high expansion velocities for the ejecta.

These have been classified as type Ic-BL or Ic-bl. The supernovae of Type II can also be sub-divided based on their spectra. While most Type II supernovae show very broad emission lines which indicate expansion velocities of many thousands of kilometres per second , some, such as SN gl , have relatively narrow features in their spectra.

These are called Type IIn, where the 'n' stands for 'narrow'. A few supernovae, such as SN K [49] and SN J , appear to change types: they show lines of hydrogen at early times, but, over a period of weeks to months, become dominated by lines of helium.

Type II supernovae with normal spectra dominated by broad hydrogen lines that remain for the life of the decline are classified on the basis of their light curves.

The most common type shows a distinctive "plateau" in the light curve shortly after peak brightness where the visual luminosity stays relatively constant for several months before the decline resumes.

These are called Type II-P referring to the plateau. Less common are Type II-L supernovae that lack a distinct plateau. The "L" signifies "linear" although the light curve is not actually a straight line.

Supernovae that do not fit into the normal classifications are designated peculiar, or 'pec'. Fritz Zwicky defined additional supernovae types based on a very few examples that did not cleanly fit the parameters for Type I or Type II supernovae.

SN i in NGC was the prototype and only member of the Type III supernova class, noted for its broad light curve maximum and broad hydrogen Balmer lines that were slow to develop in the spectrum.

The Type V class was coined for SN V in NGC , an unusual faint supernova or supernova impostor with a slow rise to brightness, a maximum lasting many months, and an unusual emission spectrum.

These types would now all be treated as peculiar Type II supernovae IIpec , of which many more examples have been discovered, although it is still debated whether SN V was a true supernova following an LBV outburst or an impostor.

Supernovae type codes, as described above, are taxonomic : the type number describes the light observed from the supernova, not necessarily its cause.

The following summarizes what is currently believed to be the most plausible explanations for supernovae. A white dwarf star may accumulate sufficient material from a stellar companion to raise its core temperature enough to ignite carbon fusion , at which point it undergoes runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting it.

There are three avenues by which this detonation is theorized to happen: stable accretion of material from a companion, the collision of two white dwarfs, or accretion that causes ignition in a shell that then ignites the core.

The dominant mechanism by which Type Ia supernovae are produced remains unclear. Some calibrations are required to compensate for the gradual change in properties or different frequencies of abnormal luminosity supernovae at high redshift, and for small variations in brightness identified by light curve shape or spectrum.

There are several means by which a supernova of this type can form, but they share a common underlying mechanism. If a carbon - oxygen white dwarf accreted enough matter to reach the Chandrasekhar limit of about 1.

In this case, only a fraction of the star's mass will be ejected during the collapse. The model for the formation of this category of supernova is a close binary star system.

The larger of the two stars is the first to evolve off the main sequence , and it expands to form a red giant. The two stars now share a common envelope, causing their mutual orbit to shrink.

The giant star then sheds most of its envelope, losing mass until it can no longer continue nuclear fusion. At this point, it becomes a white dwarf star, composed primarily of carbon and oxygen.

Matter from the giant is accreted by the white dwarf, causing the latter to increase in mass. Despite widespread acceptance of the basic model, the exact details of initiation and of the heavy elements produced in the catastrophic event are still unclear.

Type Ia supernovae follow a characteristic light curve —the graph of luminosity as a function of time—after the event.

This luminosity is generated by the radioactive decay of nickel through cobalt to iron This is because type 1a supernovae arise from a consistent type of progenitor star by gradual mass acquisition, and explode when they acquire a consistent typical mass, giving rise to very similar supernova conditions and behavior.

This allows them to be used as a secondary [64] standard candle to measure the distance to their host galaxies. Another model for the formation of Type Ia supernovae involves the merger of two white dwarf stars, with the combined mass momentarily exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit.

Abnormally bright Type Ia supernovae occur when the white dwarf already has a mass higher than the Chandrasekhar limit, [68] possibly enhanced further by asymmetry, [69] but the ejected material will have less than normal kinetic energy.

There is no formal sub-classification for the non-standard Type Ia supernovae. It has been proposed that a group of sub-luminous supernovae that occur when helium accretes onto a white dwarf should be classified as Type Iax.

One specific type of non-standard Type Ia supernova develops hydrogen, and other, emission lines and gives the appearance of mixture between a normal Type Ia and a Type IIn supernova.

Examples are SN ic and SN gj. Very massive stars can undergo core collapse when nuclear fusion becomes unable to sustain the core against its own gravity; passing this threshold is the cause of all types of supernova except Type Ia.

The collapse may cause violent expulsion of the outer layers of the star resulting in a supernova, or the release of gravitational potential energy may be insufficient and the star may collapse into a black hole or neutron star with little radiated energy.

Core collapse can be caused by several different mechanisms: electron capture ; exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit ; pair-instability ; or photodisintegration.

Electron-positron pair production in a large post-helium burning core removes thermodynamic support and causes initial collapse followed by runaway fusion, resulting in a pair-instability supernova.

A sufficiently large and hot stellar core may generate gamma-rays energetic enough to initiate photodisintegration directly, which will cause a complete collapse of the core.

The table below lists the known reasons for core collapse in massive stars, the types of stars in which they occur, their associated supernova type, and the remnant produced.

The metallicity is the proportion of elements other than hydrogen or helium, as compared to the Sun. The initial mass is the mass of the star prior to the supernova event, given in multiples of the Sun's mass, although the mass at the time of the supernova may be much lower.

Type IIn supernovae are not listed in the table. They can be produced by various types of core collapse in different progenitor stars, possibly even by Type Ia white dwarf ignitions, although it seems that most will be from iron core collapse in luminous supergiants or hypergiants including LBVs.

The narrow spectral lines for which they are named occur because the supernova is expanding into a small dense cloud of circumstellar material.

In these events, material previously ejected from the star creates the narrow absorption lines and causes a shock wave through interaction with the newly ejected material.

What follows next depends on the mass and structure of the collapsing core, with low mass degenerate cores forming neutron stars, higher mass degenerate cores mostly collapsing completely to black holes, and non-degenerate cores undergoing runaway fusion.

The initial collapse of degenerate cores is accelerated by beta decay , photodisintegration and electron capture, which causes a burst of electron neutrinos.

As the density increases, neutrino emission is cut off as they become trapped in the core. These thermal neutrinos are several times more abundant than the electron-capture neutrinos.

A process that is not clearly understood [update] is necessary to allow the outer layers of the core to reabsorb around 10 44 joules [82] 1 foe from the neutrino pulse, producing the visible brightness, although there are also other theories on how to power the explosion.

This fallback will reduce the kinetic energy created and the mass of expelled radioactive material, but in some situations, it may also generate relativistic jets that result in a gamma-ray burst or an exceptionally luminous supernova.

The collapse of a massive non-degenerate core will ignite further fusion. When the core collapse is initiated by pair instability, oxygen fusion begins and the collapse may be halted.

At the upper end of the mass range, the supernova is unusually luminous and extremely long-lived due to many solar masses of ejected 56 Ni. For even larger core masses, the core temperature becomes high enough to allow photodisintegration and the core collapses completely into a black hole.

These super AGB stars may form the majority of core collapse supernovae, although less luminous and so less commonly observed than those from more massive progenitors.

If core collapse occurs during a supergiant phase when the star still has a hydrogen envelope, the result is a Type II supernova. The rate of mass loss for luminous stars depends on the metallicity and luminosity.

Extremely luminous stars at near solar metallicity will lose all their hydrogen before they reach core collapse and so will not form a Type II supernova.

At low metallicity, all stars will reach core collapse with a hydrogen envelope but sufficiently massive stars collapse directly to a black hole without producing a visible supernova.

Stars with an initial mass up to about 90 times the sun, or a little less at high metallicity, result in a Type II-P supernova, which is the most commonly observed type.

At moderate to high metallicity, stars near the upper end of that mass range will have lost most of their hydrogen when core collapse occurs and the result will be a Type II-L supernova.

These supernovae, like those of Type II, are massive stars that undergo core collapse. However the stars which become Types Ib and Ic supernovae have lost most of their outer hydrogen envelopes due to strong stellar winds or else from interaction with a companion.

Binary models provide a better match for the observed supernovae, with the proviso that no suitable binary helium stars have ever been observed.

Type Ib supernovae are the more common and result from Wolf—Rayet stars of Type WC which still have helium in their atmospheres.

For a narrow range of masses, stars evolve further before reaching core collapse to become WO stars with very little helium remaining and these are the progenitors of Type Ic supernovae.

A few percent of the Type Ic supernovae are associated with gamma-ray bursts GRB , though it is also believed that any hydrogen-stripped Type Ib or Ic supernova could produce a GRB, depending on the circumstances of the geometry.

The jets would also transfer energy into the expanding outer shell, producing a super-luminous supernova.

Ultra-stripped supernovae occur when the exploding star has been stripped almost all the way to the metal core, via mass transfer in a close binary.

In the most extreme cases, ultra-stripped supernovae can occur in naked metal cores, barely above the Chandrasekhar mass limit.

SN ek [96] might be an observational example of an ultra-stripped supernova, giving rise to a relatively dim and fast decaying light curve.

The nature of ultra-stripped supernovae can be both iron core-collapse and electron capture supernovae, depending on the mass of the collapsing core.

The core collapse of some massive stars may not result in a visible supernova. The main model for this is a sufficiently massive core that the kinetic energy is insufficient to reverse the infall of the outer layers onto a black hole.

These events are difficult to detect, but large surveys have detected possible candidates. Only a faint infrared source remains at the star's location.

A historic puzzle concerned the source of energy that can maintain the optical supernova glow for months. Although the energy that disrupts each type of supernovae is delivered promptly, the light curves are dominated by subsequent radioactive heating of the rapidly expanding ejecta.

Some have considered rotational energy from the central pulsar. The ejecta gases would dim quickly without some energy input to keep it hot.

The intensely radioactive nature of the ejecta gases, which is now known to be correct for most supernovae, was first calculated on sound nucleosynthesis grounds in the late s.

It is now known by direct observation that much of the light curve the graph of luminosity as a function of time after the occurrence of a Type II Supernova , such as SN A, is explained by those predicted radioactive decays.

Although the luminous emission consists of optical photons, it is the radioactive power absorbed by the ejected gases that keeps the remnant hot enough to radiate light.

The radioactive decay of 56 Ni through its daughters 56 Co to 56 Fe produces gamma-ray photons , primarily of keV and keV, that are absorbed and dominate the heating and thus the luminosity of the ejecta at intermediate times several weeks to late times several months.

Later measurements by space gamma-ray telescopes of the small fraction of the 56 Co and 57 Co gamma rays that escaped the SN A remnant without absorption confirmed earlier predictions that those two radioactive nuclei were the power sources.

The visual light curves of the different supernova types all depend at late times on radioactive heating, but they vary in shape and amplitude because of the underlying mechanisms, the way that visible radiation is produced, the epoch of its observation, and the transparency of the ejected material.

The light curves can be significantly different at other wavelengths. For example, at ultraviolet wavelengths there is an early extremely luminous peak lasting only a few hours corresponding to the breakout of the shock launched by the initial event, but that breakout is hardly detectable optically.

The light curves for Type Ia are mostly very uniform, with a consistent maximum absolute magnitude and a relatively steep decline in luminosity.

Their optical energy output is driven by radioactive decay of ejected nickel half-life 6 days , which then decays to radioactive cobalt half-life 77 days.

These radioisotopes excite the surrounding material to incandescence. Studies of cosmology today rely on 56 Ni radioactivity providing the energy for the optical brightness of supernovae of Type Ia, which are the "standard candles" of cosmology but whose diagnostic keV and keV gamma rays were first detected only in The light curve continues to decline in the B band while it may show a small shoulder in the visual at about 40 days, but this is only a hint of a secondary maximum that occurs in the infra-red as certain ionised heavy elements recombine to produce infra-red radiation and the ejecta become transparent to it.

The visual light curve continues to decline at a rate slightly greater than the decay rate of the radioactive cobalt which has the longer half-life and controls the later curve , because the ejected material becomes more diffuse and less able to convert the high energy radiation into visual radiation.

After several months, the light curve changes its decline rate again as positron emission becomes dominant from the remaining cobalt, although this portion of the light curve has been little-studied.

Type Ib and Ic light curves are basically similar to Type Ia although with a lower average peak luminosity.

The visual light output is again due to radioactive decay being converted into visual radiation, but there is a much lower mass of the created nickel The most luminous Type Ic supernovae are referred to as hypernovae and tend to have broadened light curves in addition to the increased peak luminosity.

The source of the extra energy is thought to be relativistic jets driven by the formation of a rotating black hole, which also produce gamma-ray bursts.

The light curves for Type II supernovae are characterised by a much slower decline than Type I, on the order of 0. The visual light output is dominated by kinetic energy rather than radioactive decay for several months, due primarily to the existence of hydrogen in the ejecta from the atmosphere of the supergiant progenitor star.

In the initial destruction this hydrogen becomes heated and ionised. The majority of Type II supernovae show a prolonged plateau in their light curves as this hydrogen recombines, emitting visible light and becoming more transparent.

This is then followed by a declining light curve driven by radioactive decay although slower than in Type I supernovae, due to the efficiency of conversion into light by all the hydrogen.

In Type II-L the plateau is absent because the progenitor had relatively little hydrogen left in its atmosphere, sufficient to appear in the spectrum but insufficient to produce a noticeable plateau in the light output.

In Type IIb supernovae the hydrogen atmosphere of the progenitor is so depleted thought to be due to tidal stripping by a companion star that the light curve is closer to a Type I supernova and the hydrogen even disappears from the spectrum after several weeks.

Type IIn supernovae are characterised by additional narrow spectral lines produced in a dense shell of circumstellar material. Their light curves are generally very broad and extended, occasionally also extremely luminous and referred to as a superluminous supernova.

These light curves are produced by the highly efficient conversion of kinetic energy of the ejecta into electromagnetic radiation by interaction with the dense shell of material.

This only occurs when the material is sufficiently dense and compact, indicating that it has been produced by the progenitor star itself only shortly before the supernova occurs.

Large numbers of supernovae have been catalogued and classified to provide distance candles and test models. Average characteristics vary somewhat with distance and type of host galaxy, but can broadly be specified for each supernova type.

A long-standing puzzle surrounding Type II supernovae is why the remaining compact object receives a large velocity away from the epicentre; [] pulsars , and thus neutron stars, are observed to have high velocities, and black holes presumably do as well, although they are far harder to observe in isolation.

This indicates an expansion asymmetry, but the mechanism by which momentum is transferred to the compact object remains [update] a puzzle.

Proposed explanations for this kick include convection in the collapsing star and jet production during neutron star formation.

One possible explanation for this asymmetry is large-scale convection above the core. The convection can create variations in the local abundances of elements, resulting in uneven nuclear burning during the collapse, bounce and resulting expansion.

Another possible explanation is that accretion of gas onto the central neutron star can create a disk that drives highly directional jets, propelling matter at a high velocity out of the star, and driving transverse shocks that completely disrupt the star.

These jets might play a crucial role in the resulting supernova. Initial asymmetries have also been confirmed in Type Ia supernovae through observation.

This result may mean that the initial luminosity of this type of supernova depends on the viewing angle. However, the expansion becomes more symmetrical with the passage of time.

Early asymmetries are detectable by measuring the polarization of the emitted light. Although supernovae are primarily known as luminous events, the electromagnetic radiation they release is almost a minor side-effect.

Particularly in the case of core collapse supernovae, the emitted electromagnetic radiation is a tiny fraction of the total energy released during the event.

There is a fundamental difference between the balance of energy production in the different types of supernova. In Type Ia white dwarf detonations, most of the energy is directed into heavy element synthesis and the kinetic energy of the ejecta.

Type Ia supernovae derive their energy from a runaway nuclear fusion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf.

The details of the energetics are still not fully understood, but the end result is the ejection of the entire mass of the original star at high kinetic energy.

Around half a solar mass of that mass is 56 Ni generated from silicon burning. These two processes are responsible for the electromagnetic radiation from Type Ia supernovae.

In combination with the changing transparency of the ejected material, they produce the rapidly declining light curve.

Core collapse supernovae are on average visually fainter than Type Ia supernovae, but the total energy released is far higher.

In these type of supernovae, the gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic energy that compresses and collapses the core, initially producing electron neutrinos from disintegrating nucleons, followed by all flavours of thermal neutrinos from the super-heated neutron star core.

Kinetic energies and nickel yields are somewhat lower than Type Ia supernovae, hence the lower peak visual luminosity of Type II supernovae, but energy from the de- ionisation of the many solar masses of remaining hydrogen can contribute to a much slower decline in luminosity and produce the plateau phase seen in the majority of core collapse supernovae.

In some core collapse supernovae, fallback onto a black hole drives relativistic jets which may produce a brief energetic and directional burst of gamma rays and also transfers substantial further energy into the ejected material.

This is one scenario for producing high luminosity supernovae and is thought to be the cause of Type Ic hypernovae and long duration gamma-ray bursts.

If the relativistic jets are too brief and fail to penetrate the stellar envelope then a low luminosity gamma-ray burst may be produced and the supernova may be sub-luminous.

When a supernova occurs inside a small dense cloud of circumstellar material, it will produce a shock wave that can efficiently convert a high fraction of the kinetic energy into electromagnetic radiation.

Even though the initial energy was entirely normal the resulting supernova will have high luminosity and extended duration since it does not rely on exponential radioactive decay.

This type of event may cause Type IIn hypernovae. Although pair-instability supernovae are core collapse supernovae with spectra and light curves similar to Type II-P, the nature after core collapse is more like that of a giant Type Ia with runaway fusion of carbon, oxygen, and silicon.

The total energy released by the highest mass events is comparable to other core collapse supernovae but neutrino production is thought to be very low, hence the kinetic and electromagnetic energy released is very high.

The cores of these stars are much larger than any white dwarf and the amount of radioactive nickel and other heavy elements ejected from their cores can be orders of magnitude higher, with consequently high visual luminosity.

The supernova classification type is closely tied to the type of star at the time of the collapse.

The occurrence of each type of supernova depends dramatically on the metallicity, and hence the age of the host galaxy. Type Ia supernovae are produced from white dwarf stars in binary systems and occur in all galaxy types.

Core collapse supernovae are only found in galaxies undergoing current or very recent star formation, since they result from short-lived massive stars.

They are most commonly found in Type Sc spirals , but also in the arms of other spiral galaxies and in irregular galaxies , especially starburst galaxies.

The table shows the progenitor for the main types of core collapse supernova, and the approximate proportions that have been observed in the local neighbourhood.

There are a number of difficulties reconciling modelled and observed stellar evolution leading up to core collapse supernovae. Most progenitors of Type II supernovae are not detected and must be considerably fainter, and presumably less massive.

It is now proposed that higher mass red supergiants do not explode as supernovae, but instead evolve back towards hotter temperatures.

Several progenitors of Type IIb supernovae have been confirmed, and these were K and G supergiants, plus one A supergiant.

Until just a few decades ago, hot supergiants were not considered likely to explode, but observations have shown otherwise.

Blue supergiants form an unexpectedly high proportion of confirmed supernova progenitors, partly due to their high luminosity and easy detection, while not a single Wolf—Rayet progenitor has yet been clearly identified.

One study has shown a possible route for low-luminosity post-red supergiant luminous blue variables to collapse, most likely as a Type IIn supernova.

Very luminous progenitors have not been securely identified, despite numerous supernovae being observed near enough that such progenitors would have been clearly imaged.

Most of these supernovae are then produced from lower-mass low-luminosity helium stars in binary systems. A small number would be from rapidly-rotating massive stars, likely corresponding to the highly-energetic Type Ic-BL events that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

Supernovae are a major source of elements in the interstellar medium from oxygen through to rubidium, [] [] [] though the theoretical abundances of the elements produced or seen in the spectra varies significantly depending on the various supernova types.

The latter is especially true with electron capture supernovae. The r-process produces highly unstable nuclei that are rich in neutrons and that rapidly beta decay into more stable forms.

In supernovae, r-process reactions are responsible for about half of all the isotopes of elements beyond iron, [] although neutron star mergers may be the main astrophysical source for many of these elements.

In the modern universe, old asymptotic giant branch AGB stars are the dominant source of dust from s-process elements, oxides, and carbon.

Remnants of many supernovae consist of a compact object and a rapidly expanding shock wave of material.

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Genres: Drama. Edit Did You Know? Amateur astronomers , who greatly outnumber professional astronomers, have played an important role in finding supernovae, typically by looking at some of the closer galaxies through an optical telescope and comparing them to earlier photographs.

Toward the end of the 20th century astronomers increasingly turned to computer-controlled telescopes and CCDs for hunting supernovae.

While such systems are popular with amateurs, there are also professional installations such as the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope. Supernova searches fall into two classes: those focused on relatively nearby events and those looking farther away.

Because of the expansion of the universe , the distance to a remote object with a known emission spectrum can be estimated by measuring its Doppler shift or redshift ; on average, more-distant objects recede with greater velocity than those nearby, and so have a higher redshift.

High redshift searches for supernovae usually involve the observation of supernova light curves. These are useful for standard or calibrated candles to generate Hubble diagrams and make cosmological predictions.

Supernova spectroscopy, used to study the physics and environments of supernovae, is more practical at low than at high redshift.

Supernova discoveries are reported to the International Astronomical Union 's Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams , which sends out a circular with the name it assigns to that supernova.

The name is formed from the prefix SN , followed by the year of discovery, suffixed with a one or two-letter designation. The first 26 supernovae of the year are designated with a capital letter from A to Z.

Afterward pairs of lower-case letters are used: aa , ab , and so on. Hence, for example, SN C designates the third supernova reported in the year Since , professional and amateur astronomers have been finding several hundreds of supernovae each year in , in , in ; in Since the additional letter notation has been used, even if there was only one supernova discovered that year e.

SN , for SuperNova, is a standard prefix. Until , two-letter designations were rarely needed; since , however, they have been needed every year.

Since , the increasing number of discoveries has regularly led to the additional use of three-digit designations. Astronomers classify supernovae according to their light curves and the absorption lines of different chemical elements that appear in their spectra.

If a supernova's spectrum contains lines of hydrogen known as the Balmer series in the visual portion of the spectrum it is classified Type II ; otherwise it is Type I.

In each of these two types there are subdivisions according to the presence of lines from other elements or the shape of the light curve a graph of the supernova's apparent magnitude as a function of time.

Type I supernovae are subdivided on the basis of their spectra, with Type Ia showing a strong ionised silicon absorption line. Type I supernovae without this strong line are classified as Type Ib and Ic, with Type Ib showing strong neutral helium lines and Type Ic lacking them.

The light curves are all similar, although Type Ia are generally brighter at peak luminosity, but the light curve is not important for classification of Type I supernovae.

A small number of Type Ia supernovae exhibit unusual features, such as non-standard luminosity or broadened light curves, and these are typically classified by referring to the earliest example showing similar features.

A small proportion of type Ic supernovae show highly broadened and blended emission lines which are taken to indicate very high expansion velocities for the ejecta.

These have been classified as type Ic-BL or Ic-bl. The supernovae of Type II can also be sub-divided based on their spectra. While most Type II supernovae show very broad emission lines which indicate expansion velocities of many thousands of kilometres per second , some, such as SN gl , have relatively narrow features in their spectra.

These are called Type IIn, where the 'n' stands for 'narrow'. A few supernovae, such as SN K [49] and SN J , appear to change types: they show lines of hydrogen at early times, but, over a period of weeks to months, become dominated by lines of helium.

Type II supernovae with normal spectra dominated by broad hydrogen lines that remain for the life of the decline are classified on the basis of their light curves.

The most common type shows a distinctive "plateau" in the light curve shortly after peak brightness where the visual luminosity stays relatively constant for several months before the decline resumes.

These are called Type II-P referring to the plateau. Less common are Type II-L supernovae that lack a distinct plateau.

The "L" signifies "linear" although the light curve is not actually a straight line. Supernovae that do not fit into the normal classifications are designated peculiar, or 'pec'.

Fritz Zwicky defined additional supernovae types based on a very few examples that did not cleanly fit the parameters for Type I or Type II supernovae.

SN i in NGC was the prototype and only member of the Type III supernova class, noted for its broad light curve maximum and broad hydrogen Balmer lines that were slow to develop in the spectrum.

The Type V class was coined for SN V in NGC , an unusual faint supernova or supernova impostor with a slow rise to brightness, a maximum lasting many months, and an unusual emission spectrum.

These types would now all be treated as peculiar Type II supernovae IIpec , of which many more examples have been discovered, although it is still debated whether SN V was a true supernova following an LBV outburst or an impostor.

Supernovae type codes, as described above, are taxonomic : the type number describes the light observed from the supernova, not necessarily its cause.

The following summarizes what is currently believed to be the most plausible explanations for supernovae. A white dwarf star may accumulate sufficient material from a stellar companion to raise its core temperature enough to ignite carbon fusion , at which point it undergoes runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting it.

There are three avenues by which this detonation is theorized to happen: stable accretion of material from a companion, the collision of two white dwarfs, or accretion that causes ignition in a shell that then ignites the core.

The dominant mechanism by which Type Ia supernovae are produced remains unclear. Some calibrations are required to compensate for the gradual change in properties or different frequencies of abnormal luminosity supernovae at high redshift, and for small variations in brightness identified by light curve shape or spectrum.

There are several means by which a supernova of this type can form, but they share a common underlying mechanism.

If a carbon - oxygen white dwarf accreted enough matter to reach the Chandrasekhar limit of about 1. In this case, only a fraction of the star's mass will be ejected during the collapse.

The model for the formation of this category of supernova is a close binary star system. The larger of the two stars is the first to evolve off the main sequence , and it expands to form a red giant.

The two stars now share a common envelope, causing their mutual orbit to shrink. The giant star then sheds most of its envelope, losing mass until it can no longer continue nuclear fusion.

At this point, it becomes a white dwarf star, composed primarily of carbon and oxygen. Matter from the giant is accreted by the white dwarf, causing the latter to increase in mass.

Despite widespread acceptance of the basic model, the exact details of initiation and of the heavy elements produced in the catastrophic event are still unclear.

Type Ia supernovae follow a characteristic light curve —the graph of luminosity as a function of time—after the event. This luminosity is generated by the radioactive decay of nickel through cobalt to iron This is because type 1a supernovae arise from a consistent type of progenitor star by gradual mass acquisition, and explode when they acquire a consistent typical mass, giving rise to very similar supernova conditions and behavior.

This allows them to be used as a secondary [64] standard candle to measure the distance to their host galaxies. Another model for the formation of Type Ia supernovae involves the merger of two white dwarf stars, with the combined mass momentarily exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit.

Abnormally bright Type Ia supernovae occur when the white dwarf already has a mass higher than the Chandrasekhar limit, [68] possibly enhanced further by asymmetry, [69] but the ejected material will have less than normal kinetic energy.

There is no formal sub-classification for the non-standard Type Ia supernovae. It has been proposed that a group of sub-luminous supernovae that occur when helium accretes onto a white dwarf should be classified as Type Iax.

One specific type of non-standard Type Ia supernova develops hydrogen, and other, emission lines and gives the appearance of mixture between a normal Type Ia and a Type IIn supernova.

Examples are SN ic and SN gj. Very massive stars can undergo core collapse when nuclear fusion becomes unable to sustain the core against its own gravity; passing this threshold is the cause of all types of supernova except Type Ia.

The collapse may cause violent expulsion of the outer layers of the star resulting in a supernova, or the release of gravitational potential energy may be insufficient and the star may collapse into a black hole or neutron star with little radiated energy.

Core collapse can be caused by several different mechanisms: electron capture ; exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit ; pair-instability ; or photodisintegration.

Electron-positron pair production in a large post-helium burning core removes thermodynamic support and causes initial collapse followed by runaway fusion, resulting in a pair-instability supernova.

A sufficiently large and hot stellar core may generate gamma-rays energetic enough to initiate photodisintegration directly, which will cause a complete collapse of the core.

The table below lists the known reasons for core collapse in massive stars, the types of stars in which they occur, their associated supernova type, and the remnant produced.

The metallicity is the proportion of elements other than hydrogen or helium, as compared to the Sun. The initial mass is the mass of the star prior to the supernova event, given in multiples of the Sun's mass, although the mass at the time of the supernova may be much lower.

Type IIn supernovae are not listed in the table. They can be produced by various types of core collapse in different progenitor stars, possibly even by Type Ia white dwarf ignitions, although it seems that most will be from iron core collapse in luminous supergiants or hypergiants including LBVs.

The narrow spectral lines for which they are named occur because the supernova is expanding into a small dense cloud of circumstellar material.

In these events, material previously ejected from the star creates the narrow absorption lines and causes a shock wave through interaction with the newly ejected material.

What follows next depends on the mass and structure of the collapsing core, with low mass degenerate cores forming neutron stars, higher mass degenerate cores mostly collapsing completely to black holes, and non-degenerate cores undergoing runaway fusion.

The initial collapse of degenerate cores is accelerated by beta decay , photodisintegration and electron capture, which causes a burst of electron neutrinos.

As the density increases, neutrino emission is cut off as they become trapped in the core. These thermal neutrinos are several times more abundant than the electron-capture neutrinos.

A process that is not clearly understood [update] is necessary to allow the outer layers of the core to reabsorb around 10 44 joules [82] 1 foe from the neutrino pulse, producing the visible brightness, although there are also other theories on how to power the explosion.

This fallback will reduce the kinetic energy created and the mass of expelled radioactive material, but in some situations, it may also generate relativistic jets that result in a gamma-ray burst or an exceptionally luminous supernova.

The collapse of a massive non-degenerate core will ignite further fusion. When the core collapse is initiated by pair instability, oxygen fusion begins and the collapse may be halted.

At the upper end of the mass range, the supernova is unusually luminous and extremely long-lived due to many solar masses of ejected 56 Ni.

For even larger core masses, the core temperature becomes high enough to allow photodisintegration and the core collapses completely into a black hole.

These super AGB stars may form the majority of core collapse supernovae, although less luminous and so less commonly observed than those from more massive progenitors.

If core collapse occurs during a supergiant phase when the star still has a hydrogen envelope, the result is a Type II supernova.

The rate of mass loss for luminous stars depends on the metallicity and luminosity. Extremely luminous stars at near solar metallicity will lose all their hydrogen before they reach core collapse and so will not form a Type II supernova.

At low metallicity, all stars will reach core collapse with a hydrogen envelope but sufficiently massive stars collapse directly to a black hole without producing a visible supernova.

Stars with an initial mass up to about 90 times the sun, or a little less at high metallicity, result in a Type II-P supernova, which is the most commonly observed type.

At moderate to high metallicity, stars near the upper end of that mass range will have lost most of their hydrogen when core collapse occurs and the result will be a Type II-L supernova.

These supernovae, like those of Type II, are massive stars that undergo core collapse. However the stars which become Types Ib and Ic supernovae have lost most of their outer hydrogen envelopes due to strong stellar winds or else from interaction with a companion.

Binary models provide a better match for the observed supernovae, with the proviso that no suitable binary helium stars have ever been observed.

Type Ib supernovae are the more common and result from Wolf—Rayet stars of Type WC which still have helium in their atmospheres.

For a narrow range of masses, stars evolve further before reaching core collapse to become WO stars with very little helium remaining and these are the progenitors of Type Ic supernovae.

A few percent of the Type Ic supernovae are associated with gamma-ray bursts GRB , though it is also believed that any hydrogen-stripped Type Ib or Ic supernova could produce a GRB, depending on the circumstances of the geometry.

The jets would also transfer energy into the expanding outer shell, producing a super-luminous supernova. Ultra-stripped supernovae occur when the exploding star has been stripped almost all the way to the metal core, via mass transfer in a close binary.

In the most extreme cases, ultra-stripped supernovae can occur in naked metal cores, barely above the Chandrasekhar mass limit.

SN ek [96] might be an observational example of an ultra-stripped supernova, giving rise to a relatively dim and fast decaying light curve.

The nature of ultra-stripped supernovae can be both iron core-collapse and electron capture supernovae, depending on the mass of the collapsing core.

The core collapse of some massive stars may not result in a visible supernova. The main model for this is a sufficiently massive core that the kinetic energy is insufficient to reverse the infall of the outer layers onto a black hole.

These events are difficult to detect, but large surveys have detected possible candidates. Only a faint infrared source remains at the star's location.

A historic puzzle concerned the source of energy that can maintain the optical supernova glow for months. Although the energy that disrupts each type of supernovae is delivered promptly, the light curves are dominated by subsequent radioactive heating of the rapidly expanding ejecta.

Some have considered rotational energy from the central pulsar. The ejecta gases would dim quickly without some energy input to keep it hot.

The intensely radioactive nature of the ejecta gases, which is now known to be correct for most supernovae, was first calculated on sound nucleosynthesis grounds in the late s.

It is now known by direct observation that much of the light curve the graph of luminosity as a function of time after the occurrence of a Type II Supernova , such as SN A, is explained by those predicted radioactive decays.

Although the luminous emission consists of optical photons, it is the radioactive power absorbed by the ejected gases that keeps the remnant hot enough to radiate light.

The radioactive decay of 56 Ni through its daughters 56 Co to 56 Fe produces gamma-ray photons , primarily of keV and keV, that are absorbed and dominate the heating and thus the luminosity of the ejecta at intermediate times several weeks to late times several months.

Later measurements by space gamma-ray telescopes of the small fraction of the 56 Co and 57 Co gamma rays that escaped the SN A remnant without absorption confirmed earlier predictions that those two radioactive nuclei were the power sources.

The visual light curves of the different supernova types all depend at late times on radioactive heating, but they vary in shape and amplitude because of the underlying mechanisms, the way that visible radiation is produced, the epoch of its observation, and the transparency of the ejected material.

The light curves can be significantly different at other wavelengths. For example, at ultraviolet wavelengths there is an early extremely luminous peak lasting only a few hours corresponding to the breakout of the shock launched by the initial event, but that breakout is hardly detectable optically.

The light curves for Type Ia are mostly very uniform, with a consistent maximum absolute magnitude and a relatively steep decline in luminosity.

Their optical energy output is driven by radioactive decay of ejected nickel half-life 6 days , which then decays to radioactive cobalt half-life 77 days.

These radioisotopes excite the surrounding material to incandescence. Studies of cosmology today rely on 56 Ni radioactivity providing the energy for the optical brightness of supernovae of Type Ia, which are the "standard candles" of cosmology but whose diagnostic keV and keV gamma rays were first detected only in The light curve continues to decline in the B band while it may show a small shoulder in the visual at about 40 days, but this is only a hint of a secondary maximum that occurs in the infra-red as certain ionised heavy elements recombine to produce infra-red radiation and the ejecta become transparent to it.

The visual light curve continues to decline at a rate slightly greater than the decay rate of the radioactive cobalt which has the longer half-life and controls the later curve , because the ejected material becomes more diffuse and less able to convert the high energy radiation into visual radiation.

After several months, the light curve changes its decline rate again as positron emission becomes dominant from the remaining cobalt, although this portion of the light curve has been little-studied.

Type Ib and Ic light curves are basically similar to Type Ia although with a lower average peak luminosity. The visual light output is again due to radioactive decay being converted into visual radiation, but there is a much lower mass of the created nickel The most luminous Type Ic supernovae are referred to as hypernovae and tend to have broadened light curves in addition to the increased peak luminosity.

The source of the extra energy is thought to be relativistic jets driven by the formation of a rotating black hole, which also produce gamma-ray bursts.

The light curves for Type II supernovae are characterised by a much slower decline than Type I, on the order of 0. The visual light output is dominated by kinetic energy rather than radioactive decay for several months, due primarily to the existence of hydrogen in the ejecta from the atmosphere of the supergiant progenitor star.

In the initial destruction this hydrogen becomes heated and ionised. The majority of Type II supernovae show a prolonged plateau in their light curves as this hydrogen recombines, emitting visible light and becoming more transparent.

This is then followed by a declining light curve driven by radioactive decay although slower than in Type I supernovae, due to the efficiency of conversion into light by all the hydrogen.

In Type II-L the plateau is absent because the progenitor had relatively little hydrogen left in its atmosphere, sufficient to appear in the spectrum but insufficient to produce a noticeable plateau in the light output.

In Type IIb supernovae the hydrogen atmosphere of the progenitor is so depleted thought to be due to tidal stripping by a companion star that the light curve is closer to a Type I supernova and the hydrogen even disappears from the spectrum after several weeks.

Type IIn supernovae are characterised by additional narrow spectral lines produced in a dense shell of circumstellar material.

Their light curves are generally very broad and extended, occasionally also extremely luminous and referred to as a superluminous supernova.

These light curves are produced by the highly efficient conversion of kinetic energy of the ejecta into electromagnetic radiation by interaction with the dense shell of material.

This only occurs when the material is sufficiently dense and compact, indicating that it has been produced by the progenitor star itself only shortly before the supernova occurs.

Large numbers of supernovae have been catalogued and classified to provide distance candles and test models. Average characteristics vary somewhat with distance and type of host galaxy, but can broadly be specified for each supernova type.

A long-standing puzzle surrounding Type II supernovae is why the remaining compact object receives a large velocity away from the epicentre; [] pulsars , and thus neutron stars, are observed to have high velocities, and black holes presumably do as well, although they are far harder to observe in isolation.

This indicates an expansion asymmetry, but the mechanism by which momentum is transferred to the compact object remains [update] a puzzle.

Proposed explanations for this kick include convection in the collapsing star and jet production during neutron star formation.

One possible explanation for this asymmetry is large-scale convection above the core. The convection can create variations in the local abundances of elements, resulting in uneven nuclear burning during the collapse, bounce and resulting expansion.

Another possible explanation is that accretion of gas onto the central neutron star can create a disk that drives highly directional jets, propelling matter at a high velocity out of the star, and driving transverse shocks that completely disrupt the star.

These jets might play a crucial role in the resulting supernova. Initial asymmetries have also been confirmed in Type Ia supernovae through observation.

This result may mean that the initial luminosity of this type of supernova depends on the viewing angle.

However, the expansion becomes more symmetrical with the passage of time. Early asymmetries are detectable by measuring the polarization of the emitted light.

Although supernovae are primarily known as luminous events, the electromagnetic radiation they release is almost a minor side-effect. Particularly in the case of core collapse supernovae, the emitted electromagnetic radiation is a tiny fraction of the total energy released during the event.

There is a fundamental difference between the balance of energy production in the different types of supernova. In Type Ia white dwarf detonations, most of the energy is directed into heavy element synthesis and the kinetic energy of the ejecta.

Type Ia supernovae derive their energy from a runaway nuclear fusion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The details of the energetics are still not fully understood, but the end result is the ejection of the entire mass of the original star at high kinetic energy.

Around half a solar mass of that mass is 56 Ni generated from silicon burning. These two processes are responsible for the electromagnetic radiation from Type Ia supernovae.

In combination with the changing transparency of the ejected material, they produce the rapidly declining light curve. Core collapse supernovae are on average visually fainter than Type Ia supernovae, but the total energy released is far higher.

In these type of supernovae, the gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic energy that compresses and collapses the core, initially producing electron neutrinos from disintegrating nucleons, followed by all flavours of thermal neutrinos from the super-heated neutron star core.

Kinetic energies and nickel yields are somewhat lower than Type Ia supernovae, hence the lower peak visual luminosity of Type II supernovae, but energy from the de- ionisation of the many solar masses of remaining hydrogen can contribute to a much slower decline in luminosity and produce the plateau phase seen in the majority of core collapse supernovae.

In some core collapse supernovae, fallback onto a black hole drives relativistic jets which may produce a brief energetic and directional burst of gamma rays and also transfers substantial further energy into the ejected material.

This is one scenario for producing high luminosity supernovae and is thought to be the cause of Type Ic hypernovae and long duration gamma-ray bursts.

If the relativistic jets are too brief and fail to penetrate the stellar envelope then a low luminosity gamma-ray burst may be produced and the supernova may be sub-luminous.

When a supernova occurs inside a small dense cloud of circumstellar material, it will produce a shock wave that can efficiently convert a high fraction of the kinetic energy into electromagnetic radiation.

Even though the initial energy was entirely normal the resulting supernova will have high luminosity and extended duration since it does not rely on exponential radioactive decay.

This type of event may cause Type IIn hypernovae. Although pair-instability supernovae are core collapse supernovae with spectra and light curves similar to Type II-P, the nature after core collapse is more like that of a giant Type Ia with runaway fusion of carbon, oxygen, and silicon.

The total energy released by the highest mass events is comparable to other core collapse supernovae but neutrino production is thought to be very low, hence the kinetic and electromagnetic energy released is very high.

The cores of these stars are much larger than any white dwarf and the amount of radioactive nickel and other heavy elements ejected from their cores can be orders of magnitude higher, with consequently high visual luminosity.

The supernova classification type is closely tied to the type of star at the time of the collapse. The occurrence of each type of supernova depends dramatically on the metallicity, and hence the age of the host galaxy.

Type Ia supernovae are produced from white dwarf stars in binary systems and occur in all galaxy types. Core collapse supernovae are only found in galaxies undergoing current or very recent star formation, since they result from short-lived massive stars.

They are most commonly found in Type Sc spirals , but also in the arms of other spiral galaxies and in irregular galaxies , especially starburst galaxies.

The table shows the progenitor for the main types of core collapse supernova, and the approximate proportions that have been observed in the local neighbourhood.

There are a number of difficulties reconciling modelled and observed stellar evolution leading up to core collapse supernovae.

Most progenitors of Type II supernovae are not detected and must be considerably fainter, and presumably less massive. It is now proposed that higher mass red supergiants do not explode as supernovae, but instead evolve back towards hotter temperatures.

Several progenitors of Type IIb supernovae have been confirmed, and these were K and G supergiants, plus one A supergiant.

Until just a few decades ago, hot supergiants were not considered likely to explode, but observations have shown otherwise.

Blue supergiants form an unexpectedly high proportion of confirmed supernova progenitors, partly due to their high luminosity and easy detection, while not a single Wolf—Rayet progenitor has yet been clearly identified.

One study has shown a possible route for low-luminosity post-red supergiant luminous blue variables to collapse, most likely as a Type IIn supernova.

Very luminous progenitors have not been securely identified, despite numerous supernovae being observed near enough that such progenitors would have been clearly imaged.

Most of these supernovae are then produced from lower-mass low-luminosity helium stars in binary systems. A small number would be from rapidly-rotating massive stars, likely corresponding to the highly-energetic Type Ic-BL events that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

Supernovae are a major source of elements in the interstellar medium from oxygen through to rubidium, [] [] [] though the theoretical abundances of the elements produced or seen in the spectra varies significantly depending on the various supernova types.

The latter is especially true with electron capture supernovae. The r-process produces highly unstable nuclei that are rich in neutrons and that rapidly beta decay into more stable forms.

In supernovae, r-process reactions are responsible for about half of all the isotopes of elements beyond iron, [] although neutron star mergers may be the main astrophysical source for many of these elements.

In the modern universe, old asymptotic giant branch AGB stars are the dominant source of dust from s-process elements, oxides, and carbon.

Remnants of many supernovae consist of a compact object and a rapidly expanding shock wave of material. This cloud of material sweeps up surrounding interstellar medium during a free expansion phase, which can last for up to two centuries.

The wave then gradually undergoes a period of adiabatic expansion , and will slowly cool and mix with the surrounding interstellar medium over a period of about 10, years.

The Big Bang produced hydrogen , helium , and traces of lithium , while all heavier elements are synthesized in stars and supernovae. Supernovae tend to enrich the surrounding interstellar medium with elements other than hydrogen and helium, which usually astronomers refer to as " metals ".

These injected elements ultimately enrich the molecular clouds that are the sites of star formation. Supernovae are the dominant mechanism for distributing these heavier elements, which are formed in a star during its period of nuclear fusion.

The different abundances of elements in the material that forms a star have important influences on the star's life, and may decisively influence the possibility of having planets orbiting it.

The kinetic energy of an expanding supernova remnant can trigger star formation by compressing nearby, dense molecular clouds in space.

Evidence from daughter products of short-lived radioactive isotopes shows that a nearby supernova helped determine the composition of the Solar System 4.

On 1 June , astronomers reported narrowing down the source of Fast Radio Bursts FRBs , which may now plausibly include " compact-object mergers and magnetars arising from normal core collapse supernovae".

Supernova remnants are thought to accelerate a large fraction of galactic primary cosmic rays , but direct evidence for cosmic ray production has only been found in a small number of remnants.

Gamma-rays from pion -decay have been detected from the supernova remnants IC and W These are produced when accelerated protons from the SNR impact on interstellar material.

Supernovae are potentially strong galactic sources of gravitational waves , [] but none have so far been detected. The only gravitational wave events so far detected are from mergers of black holes and neutron stars, probable remnants of supernovae.

A near-Earth supernova is a supernova close enough to the Earth to have noticeable effects on its biosphere. Depending upon the type and energy of the supernova, it could be as far as light-years away.

In it was theorized that traces of past supernovae might be detectable on Earth in the form of metal isotope signatures in rock strata.

Iron enrichment was later reported in deep-sea rock of the Pacific Ocean. Gamma rays from these supernovae could have boosted levels of nitrogen oxides, which became trapped in the ice.

Type Ia supernovae are thought to be potentially the most dangerous if they occur close enough to the Earth. Because these supernovae arise from dim, common white dwarf stars in binary systems, it is likely that a supernova that can affect the Earth will occur unpredictably and in a star system that is not well studied.

The closest known candidate is IK Pegasi see below. The next supernova in the Milky Way will likely be detectable even if it occurs on the far side of the galaxy.

It is likely to be produced by the collapse of an unremarkable red supergiant and it is very probable that it will already have been catalogued in infrared surveys such as 2MASS.

There is a smaller chance that the next core collapse supernova will be produced by a different type of massive star such as a yellow hypergiant, luminous blue variable, or Wolf—Rayet.

The chances of the next supernova being a Type Ia produced by a white dwarf are calculated to be about a third of those for a core collapse supernova.

Again it should be observable wherever it occurs, but it is less likely that the progenitor will ever have been observed. It isn't even known exactly what a Type Ia progenitor system looks like, and it is difficult to detect them beyond a few parsecs.

The total supernova rate in our galaxy is estimated to be between 2 and 12 per century, although we haven't actually observed one for several centuries.

Statistically, the next supernova is likely to be produced from an otherwise unremarkable red supergiant, but it is difficult to identify which of those supergiants are in the final stages of heavy element fusion in their cores and which have millions of years left.

The most-massive red supergiants shed their atmospheres and evolve to Wolf—Rayet stars before their cores collapse. All Wolf—Rayet stars end their lives from the Wolf—Rayet phase within a million years or so, but again it is difficult to identify those that are closest to core collapse.

One class that is expected to have no more than a few thousand years before exploding are the WO Wolf—Rayet stars, which are known to have exhausted their core helium.

A number of close or well known stars have been identified as possible core collapse supernova candidates: the red supergiants Antares and Betelgeuse ; [] the yellow hypergiant Rho Cassiopeiae ; [] the luminous blue variable Eta Carinae that has already produced a supernova impostor ; [] and the brightest component, a Wolf—Rayet star , in the Regor or Gamma Velorum system.

Identification of candidates for a Type Ia supernova is much more speculative. Any binary with an accreting white dwarf might produce a supernova although the exact mechanism and timescale is still debated.

These systems are faint and difficult to identify, but the novae and recurrent novae are such systems that conveniently advertise themselves.

One example is U Scorpii. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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